*I translate a Japanese article into English

Hi, black maestro of the designer.
I love comics and games myself, and recently I was interested in the word
“Torepaku” (abbreviation of Trace and Plagiarism in Japanese) that I see on the Internet.
I’m also working on images, so I’d like to put together a memorandum.

* All the images used this time are my illustrations.

What is tracing?

Trace something that already exists.
Or a trace to be traced.

Trace(トレース) | Wiki [in Japan] 
トレスの例

Did you trace your favorite cartoon character as a child? That’s it.
Trace itself is not illegal, and some painters use trace techniques to collage photos and redraw them.

When it comes to illegal times, it is a copyright infringement if a copyrighted image is traced and released to others without permission.

There is no problem with using your own photos, licensed images, or license-free images.

What is Plagiarism?

Make works and stories similar to existing ones.
Or to present very similar works or material
(E.g. steal someone’s idea).

Source:Plagiarism(パクリ) | Wiki [in Japan]
模写の例

In the case of “torepaku”,”Plagiarism” often refers to copying and imitation.
This is also the same as tracing, and the act itself is not illegal.
I don’t think anyone has ever copied or imitated a favorite picture or photo.
When it comes to illegal times, copying and imitation are the same as tracing, and it is a copyright infringement if an image that is copyrighted by another person is copied and copied without permission.
However, Plagiarism may be pointed out not only by copying and imitation but also by composition and color. In that case, it is important whether there is similarity or dependency.

What is reliance?

依拠の例

… In short, it is whether it is a deliberate plagiarism.
Those created with the same concept and theme are not without coincidence.
“Is there (depending on) or not” and “comparison of similarity / identity” are very important.

How to avoid Trace and Plagiarism?

Since copyrights exist in images, tracing and copying your favorite illustrations / photos from images and books on the Internet are only for practice and hobbies (scope of private use) and should not be disclosed or distributed.
Let’s do it.
If you want to use it in your work, look for a license-free image that is OK to trace or copy, or purchase a paid image.
If you want to use commercials such as doujinshi and miscellaneous goods, be sure to check whether they can be used for commercial purposes.
If you dig into the details, copyright is the right that is recognized for its
creativity and originality
, so it does not occur in mediocre works.

originality
Is this illustration original?

Problems caused by the generalization of the word “Torepaku”

トレパクの誤った検証例
  • It is pointed out that it is similar, without knowledge, and spreads.
  • The verification side, who must make a fair decision, also performs verification without correct knowledge.

The image above is pretty rough, but you can sometimes see it like this.
It seems that there are some works that were actually cut and pasted,
but if you are a person with a similar pattern, you can stack them as much as you like by transforming them.

Did you understand the difficulty of verification?…
have also seen the word “idea plagiarism”, but to be exact, copyright is generated at the time of creation of the work, so imitation of ideas does not infringe copyright. Manage your ideas carefully.

However, “idea plagiarism” is actually used to refer to imitation of motifs, themes, situations, compositions, etc. Since it “a soft word, it is better not to use the verification side.

The creator and the verifier make a calm judgment

In today’s Internet society, information and misinformation that has been spread once remain semi-permanently.
The artist has to learn about copyright and avoid making false creations, and the verification side should not verify “gray certification because it is suspicious,” but verify it calmly.

Since we focused only on the ”Trace and Plagiarism” problem, we can’t deny the lack of explanation, but this time!

Postscript: A parody tribute article has been released!

作者情報
A designer wearing black clothes that has recently started studying the front end and the web. My hobbies are watching horror works and listening to ghost stories. I like very spicy gourmet food.
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